USEFUL INFORMATION Raw Materials  What Is Scent?  History Of Scent
What Is Composed Fragrance?  Fragrance Smelling Techniques


    Raw materials of fragrances are divided into two groups according to their nature.
  1. Natural raw materials
  2. Chemical raw materials
Natural raw materials, usually consists of only one special plant and are produced with physical methods. The international name of these materials is essential oil. Essential Oil is produced from either flower part, leaf part or other parts of the plant. For example from flowers, rose, violet and orange flower; from leaves rosemary, from fruits lemon and orange, from roots orris oil are produced.

Animal based materials can only be found in unique kind of cat's genetic organs that lives in Himalaya Mountains.

Our country's weather and soil conditions are pretty good; however this is not enough for the production of natural raw materials, because the necessary conditions obtained by culture plants. Only the production of several oils is being made from natural plants. Due to weather conditions throughout the year chemical features differs, so that it is not possible to make a production standard; although it is essential to keep the quality standard continual to supply raw materials in a standard way.

    Methods to get essential oil supplies are given above:
  1. Water vapor destilation
  2. Solvent extraction
  3. Enfleurage
  4. Maseration
  5. Press
  6. Ultrasonic wave

  1. Water vapor destilation: This method is used in efficient plants that are tolerated to heat such as rose.
  2. Solvent Extraction: Cheaper way to get alcohol and liquid carbondiokside. Products are called 'concret' and it is produced under low pressure and after destilation the absolute product is made.
  3. Enfleurage: It is cold process. This method is used in weak, non efficient, and plants that are not tolerated to heat. It is also more expensive method.
  4. Maseration: It is hot process. Flower oils are put in hot conditions and being extracted with a oil solvent, then concret type product is ready.
  5. Press: It is applied to sour oranges' outer cover part
  6. Ultrasonic waves: It is the last and most improved technologic method. With this way the outer parts of fruits are destroyed and fragrance is obtained from inside.


Chemical materials and gases founded in weather are converted to meaningful scents in our brain by nose impulses. After understanding the scent, it causes some effects in physical and physiological way. For example some scents gives excitement and freshness.

A nice flower scent can make us feel peaceful and gives happiness Scents are essential in our life since prehistoric ages. The important point is that in today's mechanic world fragrances are needed and are invaluable.


We can say history of scent is as old as humanity and is depended on human culture. Since the old ages the meaningful word that explains the scent is 'perfume'.

Old Egyptians washed their dead bodies with nice smelled oils and wanted to carry the scent to after life. Since then scents are used for beauty. Humans exceed their scent from nice smelled plants and oils that are produced from plants till the beginning ages of 19th century.

Europe had started fragrant oil production in 16th century. Despite our country started in the end of 19th century the investments in chemical industry has made us improve quickly in this subject.

The expectations of people have increased with time due to demands and requirements of personal cleaning, cosmetics and industrial materials. Natural oils become insufficient to meet those demands, for that reason Composed Fragrance has born and took its place in today's industry.


Composed fragrance is being made of natural essential oil and chemical organic material formulations.

Fragrance structure is like a pyramid. There are three functional groups of pyramid: Tope note, middle note and base note.


It is the first impression of fragrance. It consists of little molecules and natural materials that go with middle note. Due to evaporation rate and time it can be said that the fifty percent of the main fragrance is top note.


It is the part that specifies the main character and style of fragrance. It is the heart of the scent and appears more after the top notes evaporate. Middle note doesn't evaporate as fast as top note and thirty percent of the main fragrance is consist of middle note.


It is the part that provides the permanent scent. That part is consists of big molecules and chemical resinoids. It adds fix smell feature to scent and stables the atmosphere. Fixation time depends on the material that is chosen. If we want to define base note with one sentence; we can say that it says the last word in perfume's economic success.


The perception of fragrance is called smelling process.

And this process is called orgonoleptic test. By the help of this test, the style, power and permanency of fragrance are determined. This process is important because it is a complementary analysis for the fragrance. In this test control center is brain. Scents are firstly introduced to brain. Type and all features of scent are saved to the smelling memory.

Special Points of smelling process:

If smelling process will be done upon pure fragrance; it is important not to smell from its bottle. Smelling would be best with a paper that sucks liquid, by moving from distance like 5-10 cm.
Process room should be without smell and temperature should be stable at 20-25 centigrade.
Process should be done again and again in every 1-2 minute time intervals, and this process should be done 3-4 times.
During smelling full concentration is needed. Eyes should be closed.
Not more than 5 different types of fragrance should be smelled.
Information taken during smelling should be noted.
First information is top notes then middle and base notes.